Friday, January 31, 2020
Personal Reflection - Essay Example In this course reflection paper, I will discuss trust in God and also to love God and my neighbors. Trust is one of the hardest traits to gain when dealing with others, so that makes it difficult to reach that level with God. Trust is not specifically mentioned much in the bible, but there are many verses that touch on this area. One such verse is "For I know the plans I have for you, declares the Lord, plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you hope and a future."1 This is one of the most powerful verses in the bible, yet it is also very simple as well. Anyone could understand the meaning of this verse, even those who do not consider themselves to be Christian. The key theme of this verse is to trust God because he has the future all mapped out already. Too many people have stress in their life because they are uncertain of what will come next. I learned in this course that as a Christian I should not worry about tomorrow and instead trust God that everything will come to pass. There are many verses in the bible that can be interpreted multiple ways, but this is not that is almost crystal clear. From this verse I now understand that God already knows my future, and so I should just trust him and not worry about my life. The second point I want to touch on is the simplest commandment of them all, and that is to love God and love my neighbor as myself. Jesus said "Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind. This is the first and greatest commandment.Ã And the second is like it: Ã¢â¬ËLove your neighbor as yourself."2 These verses are quite clear that we must love God first and then once we have that connection we can then move onto the next stage. I must admit that this verse is a great help for Christians who do not know how to live their lives. In the Old Testament there were many laws and commandments, and it was almost too difficult to follow all of them. However,
Monday, January 27, 2020
Child Observation for Development Analysis Kirsty Lynch Child Observation Study Introduction By the age of six, children are moving out of what Erikson called the initiative vs Guilt-purpose period and are moving into the industry vs inferiority-competence stage of their lives. This is a main developmental stage in the life of a child where many milestones are hoped to be achieved by. To demonstrate the developmental stage of a six year old child I have conducted this child observation study. The setting of this child observation takes place in what appears to be a computer room in a primary school. There are three students present in the room, two girls, Mackenzie and Isabella aged six and one boy, Noah who is also six years old. There is one female adult present in the observation, the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s teacher. There are a small number of adults present in the background, this is because it is a communal computer room and these other adults are not part of the observation study. The activity thatÃ¢â¬â¢s taking place is a teaching lesson in which the teacher is demonstra ting patterns to the children and asking the children, at first to work together to complete the pattern and then to individually finish the patterns themselves. The child who is the focus of this observation study is Noah, the six year old boy. Observations: Discussion: From observing Noah in his school environment, it is easier to see the developmental stage that he is at, the milestones that he has reached are quite evident and his developmental stage is quite clear and progressing well, however there are a few milestones which Noah should have reached by the age of six which it seems he has failed to reach, here I will discuss NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s Physical, Emotional and Cognitive development and I will link it in with developmental psychology to illustrate where Noah is at in his Development and where he should be. Physical Develop: NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s physical development seems to be normal for his age, in comparison to Isabella and Mackenzie he seems to be the same height and slightly broader which is normal for a boy of his age. By the age of six years old, children usually reach an average height of about three foot ten inches and they normally weigh about forty-six pounds. These are just average figures but from observing Noah he seems to fit into this profile, although it is hard to judge his weight from the observation, he appears a healthy weight for his height and age. At the age of six years old, children have a lot of energy and they enjoy engaging in activities which involve a lot of movement. In order to achieve these movements, children require the use of Gross motor skills (Clarke McDowel, 2006). It is evident that Noah has a lot of energy and that his gross motor skills are developing at an appropriate rate. Noah canÃ¢â¬â¢t sit easy, is constantly moving his arms and hands, he makes shapes with his hands and at one stage imitates a bird using hand movements. It can be seen that Noah has good muscle control and good co-ordination. NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s fine motor skills can also be seen. Fine motor skills require dexterity, which is the good use of hands and fingers. By six years of age children have reached the stage of being able to use many fine motor skills, such as tying their shoe laces, good hand control and good use of both of their hands (Clarke McDowel, 2006). NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s fine motor skills can be seen little by little throughout the observation, Noah uses both of his hands consistently to complete the puzzles and he has the ability to turn the shapes into objects, Noah does this when he makes the shape of a house out of the shapes on the table. Intellectual Development: NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s communication does not seem to be at the level that it should be at for a six year old child. By the age of six most children can maintain attention, concentrate and can sit quietly during activities. Noah however, lacked concentration and only paid attention when he was being giving attention for his turn; he was unable to hold his concentration during the other students turns. At times NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s speech was quite hard to understand, it was sometimes slightly slurred. A child of NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s age should have an extended vocabulary and should be able to explore the meaning and sounds of new words, their speech should be precise and clear by this age. Children tend to express themselves by using new words, making up stories and developing their own narratives and explanations by connecting ideas together (Clarke McDowel, 2006). Noah did not seem to have an extended vocabulary and his speech seemed very limited at times, he only spoke when he was seeking attention or when he wanted acknowledgement or praise for completing a task. Emotional and Social Development: At six years of age children should be able to identify and convey feelings and interact with adults and other children. As children develop they learn how to show affection, manage aggravation and irritation and understand jealousy and sadness (Clarke McDowel, 2006). While Noah has reached most of this developmental stage there are a few points within this stage which Noah has not completely met yet. The milestones which Noah has achieved at this developmental stage in his emotional and social development are co-operation, solving problems, seeking attention and becoming competitive. Although he co-operated, most of the time, Noah was quite fidgety while awaiting his turn. Noah was quite competitive, which is normal for a child of his age, and he likes the attention to be focused on him. Noah asked the teacher to Ã¢â¬Å"lookÃ¢â¬ at him a number of times and at one stage said Ã¢â¬Å"see, look, watch how fast I amÃ¢â¬ as he was seeking attention and praise from the teacher. His sense of security seems to be reliant on praise from adults that he trusts; in this case that was his teacher. However, Noah was also quite irritated when it was not his turn to complete the puzzle, he had to be asked a number of times to wait his turn, by this age Noah should have a sense of controlling irritation and following instructions set out by his teacher. Cognitive Development: Children play an enormous role in their own cognitive development. They do this by trying to understand whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going on around them by organising, explaining, constructing, manipulating and predicting. We can see that Noah plays an active role in his cognitive development, he understands what is being asked of him, he knows what he is meant to do and constructs shapes and patterns with the pieces supplied by his teacher. At the age of six, children also see patterns in objects and actions of the world and they can often attempt to organize these patterns to try and explain the world. Noah demonstrates this when he sees a house in the shapes that are on the table, he then constructs a tree to go along with the house because in NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of the world this is what is normal, houses, gardens, maybe trees in the garden or outside on the road. However, Noah also demonstrates some limitations in his cognitive development. Noah has trouble controlling his own attention, when the attention is on him Noah behaves and does what he is asked to do, he displays an intense interest in learning and takes pride in completing the patterns, but when it is Mackenzie or IsabellaÃ¢â¬â¢s turn, Noah lacks attention, he is twisting and turning in his chair, fidgeting with his hands and looking around the room. Noah becomes slightly frustrated that he has to take turns, the attention isnÃ¢â¬â¢t on him and the learning does not come about as quickly as he would like because he has to wait. Developmental psychology: During the Initiative vs Guilt-purpose stage children desire to copy the actions of the people around them and they take initiative in creating a play situation. Noah has reached this developmental stage as he shows that he can take instructions and copy what the teacher does, the teacher demonstrates how to do the patterns and Noah is quick to copy what she does, he is able to complete the pattern and he is able to turn the task into a play situation, he illustrates this by building a house out of the shapes that he is working with. Noah has accomplished this milestone and is moving into the Industry vs Inferiority-competence stage, which is often referred to as the latency stage. This stage allows children to learn, create and accomplish a number of new skills and Knowledge and helps them to develop a sense of industry. Noah shows that he is competent in this stage by completing the patterns that the teacher gives him with ease and he takes pride in completing these tasks. However, this is also an incredibly social stage of development, where experiences of unresolved feelings of inferiority and inadequacy among other children can have problems in relation to competence and self-esteem. Noah seems to be constantly looking for attention, he canÃ¢â¬â¢t sit easy if itÃ¢â¬â¢s not his turn and if he is not been giving attention. He is constantly looking for acknowledgement and praise for completing his tasks, itÃ¢â¬â¢s as if he is trying to prove that he is capable and better than the other students at completing the task., he says Ã¢â¬Å"See, look, watch, watch how fast I amÃ¢â¬ . Freud says that during the Latency stage sexual urges remain subdued and that children tend to play and interact with the same sex peers. In this observation Noah is with the opposite sex, however, there is no indication as to whether Noah chooses to be in this group or whether the teacher specifically put him in this group for observational purposes. If Noah was placed in this group it could account for why he felt the need to prove his capability over the girls, it is hard to tell whether Noah would have acted the same if he was in a group with boys. PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s preoperational stage is just coming to an end by the time a child is six years old. Piaget states that a child should have reached the milestone of being able to use basic logic but may still not be able to understand how other people perceive the environment (Crawford and Walker, 2003). Attachment: Attachment is the close, continuous relationship with at least one other person that children need in order to develop a confident, stable, integrated personality (Fawcett, 2009). Mary Ainsworth came up with the three different types of attachment that a child could experience; Securely attached being the usual, standard attachment where children explore by themselves and can sometimes show some signs of concern when they are separated from their parents but usually settle and continue to play. , Insecure Avoidant, where children seem indifferent on whether or not the parent is there and insecure ambivalent, where children experience great upset when the parent leaves and opposing reactions when the parent returns (Ainsworth et al, 1978). Children tend to view the person that they are attached to as a secure foundation, a source of reassurance and someone who encourages them and offers them guidance (Crawford and Walker, 2003). Noah shows this attachment with his teacher. He looks to his teacher for guidance when completing the patterns, and he seeks praise and encouragement from her upon completing the task, he asks her to Ã¢â¬Å"lookÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"seeÃ¢â¬ what he has done. It is difficult to determine NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s attachment with his teacher in such a short amount of time, he does not ignore the presence of his teacher, nor does he cling to his teacher, although Noah does seem to constantly be looking for the teachers attention, this could indicate a lack of attention at home, or having to seek attention at home. Tentative Conclusions: From observing Noah it is clear that his development is on the right track. NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s physical development is normal for his age and he has accomplished many of the physical milestones that a six year old should have accomplished. His intellectual development is at a slower development rate than the average child of NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s age. Speech and language therapy could be used in order to help Noah develop his speech and language to an appropriate level. Noah does not seem to engage in conversation much and with the help of a speech and language therapist this could encourage Noah to engage more in conversation with his peers and his teacher. Noah seems to enjoy play and he enjoys praise for completing tasks, Play Therapy could be a useful resource to help Noah understand how to control his irritations and to help him concentrate. NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s development is on the right track but with a little help from the likes of a speech and language therapist or a play therapy specialist, NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s development could be improved to an appropriate level for a six year old child. Reflexive Piece: When beginning this observation, I had my own idea of what a six year old child should be doing and how far along a six year olds development should be. I thought back to what I was like when I was six years old, I could remember being in school and doing well in school, but other than that my memory of being six was not great. However, I myself have two younger brothers, one who has just turned seven years old and one who is turning six this year. From my own experience of my younger brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s developmental stages, I had a preconception that all six year olds behaved in a similar way and that most six year olds had met the same developmental markers. Some of my own professional experience also influenced me in the completion of this assignment. I had previously done a placement in The National ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Hospital and I worked alongside Play Specialists. The children I worked with were from infants to teenagers, but the majority of the children who were involved in the play therapy sessions were aged between four years old and nine years old. From working with those children the same age as Noah I could really see what Noah was excelling in and where Noah was lacking in some developmental stages. I had previously worked with a family whose child was at a slower developing rate than his peers and the work that I participated in with that family influenced my ideas of what could help Noah. This child was also six years of age but had not reached all of the milestones expected by the age of six; similarly, Noah had not reached some of the milestones that you would expect him to have reached. Word Count: 3,299 Bibliography: Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E. Wall, S., 1978. Patterns of Attachment: A psychological study of the strange ssituation. Hillsdale: NJ: Erlbaum. Clarke, P. McDowel, G., 2006. The Developing Child. Glencoe: McGraw-Hill. Crawford, K. Walker, J., 2003. Social Work and Human Development. s.l.:Learning Matters. Fawcett, M., 2009. Learning Through Child Observation. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Ingleby, E., 2006. Applied Psychology for Social Work. Glasgow: Learning Matters.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Electroconvulsive therapy, also known as ECT, is a medical procedure that is used in the treatment of mental illness. In ECT, a small electrical impulse is sent through the brain, resulting in an ephemeral seizure. Though the process is generally effective, modern science is unaware of the explanation behind ECT's success. Its history is filled with a large amount of stigma and the use of ECT as a therapy is still debated today. ECT has evolved to a point where its beneficial effects can be maximized and its adverse effects can be minimized through proper administration. The ancient Romans were the first to use electricity to treat disease several thousand years ago; however, Ã¢â¬Å"electrical medicineÃ¢â¬ has improved and has been utilized in the forms predating ECT in a relatively short amount of time. In the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries, doctors began to notice that giving people camphor could Ã¢â¬Å"cure lunacyÃ¢â¬ (Abrams, 2002). The doctors noticed that when administering camphor orally, it caused seizures, and upon waking up, were Ã¢â¬Å"in a rational stateÃ¢â¬ (Abrams, 2002). In fact, in 1798, a German scientist reported that 80% of manic patients that were treated with camphor and had seizures, were cured (Abrams, 2002). As medical and technological advances occurred, so did the use of inducing a seizure to cure mental illness. In 1934, a scientist was able to bring a schizophrenic patient, who had been on a hunger strike and had not moved in four years, to recovery through a seizure that had been brought on by camphor (Abrams, 2 002). And, Ã¢â¬Å"thus, convulsive therapy was bornÃ¢â¬ (Abrams, 2002). By the end of the year, this scientist published results of the same action given to twenty-six schizophrenics, ten patients were cured, thirteen had no re... ...ll be given. Even as ECT's use fades out, the impacts of the research will lead to necessary, and important, scientific findings. Works Cited Abrams, Richard. Electroconvulsive Therapy. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2002. Print. Dahl, Melissa. "Shock Therapy Makes a Quiet Comeback." Msnbc.com. 6 Aug. 2008. Web. "Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) Benefits & Side Effects." WebMD. 1 Mar. 2010. Web. 13 Nov. 2014. Fitzgerald, Paul. "It's Time to Move on from ECT's Shocking past." The Conversation: In-depth Analysis, Research, News and Ideas from Leading Academics and Researchers. 29 Sept. 2011. Web. 8 Nov. 2014. Staff, Mayo Clinic. "Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)." Mayo Clinic. 9 July 2010. Web. 10 Nov. 2014. "Use of Electroconvulsive Therapy During Pregnancy -- Miller 45 (5): 444 -- Hosp Community Psychiatry." Psychiatric Services. May 1991. Web. 8 Nov. 2014.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
The International Tribunal for the Former YugoslaviaÃ Ã On May 25, 1993, U.N. Security Council Resolution 827 established an international tribunal charged with prosecuting violations of international law arising from the armed conflicts in the former Yugoslavia. Not since the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials, following World War II has an international court tried individuals accused of crimes against humanity, war crimes, and genocide. The International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTFY), which was established at The Hague, Netherlands, is widely seen as an important step toward the deterrence of crimes, the establishment of the firm rule of international law, and the promotion of world peace. Yet, from its inception, the tribunal has generated controversy among supporters and detractors. Among those who believe that the tribunal idea is sound, the principal concerns are that such an institution be established on a sound legal basis, that it adhere to an acceptably high standard of due process, that it administer equal and dispass ionate justice, and that it be perceived by nations and individuals to be legitimate, fair and effective. Unfortunately, the Yugoslavia tribunal has not yet met all these standards--and may never be able to meet all of them in the fullest sense. A discussion of some of the realities that face the ICTFY demonstrates why the task of making the tribunal work is so difficult--and why it is vital that it be accomplished. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã None of the four requirements that the tribunal must meet is easily achieved, and, in some cases, success seems unlikely. Many supporters of international humanitarian law are convinced, however, that, so long as the court does no harm, it must continue to pursue its original goals. This position supports the general idea of the rule of law, without reference to the circumstances. Ordinarily, of course, justice is supposed to be above the particularities of any case. Yet the nature of the circumstances in the case of the former Yugoslavia may undermine the ICTFY's credibility and render it ineffective in obtaining justice and promoting the concept of international humanitarian law. Justice must be predicated on detachment and impartiality. But the ICTFY is essentially a first attempt at administering such justice, and the peculiarities of the test case have to be kept from contaminating the process. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The... ...via and International Law." East European Constitutional Review 5, no. 4 (1996): 75-79. Dimitrijevic, Vojin. "The War Crimes Tribunal in the Yugoslav Context." East European Constitutional Review 5, no. 4 (1996): 85-92. Dworkin, Anthony. "The World in Judgement." Index on Censorship 5 (1996): 137-144. Guest, Iain. "The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: A Preliminary Assessment." In Implementation of the Helsinki Accords: The War Crimes Trials for the Former Yugoslavia: Prospects and Problems, briefing of the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, Washington D. C., May 28 1996, 75-84. Washington, D. C.: Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, 1996. Niarchos, Catherine N. "Women, War, and Rape: Challenges Facing the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia." Human Rights Quarterly 17 (1995): 649-690. Teitel, Ruti. "Judgment at The Hague." East European Constitutional Review 5, no. 4 (1996): 80-85. Thornberry, Cedric. "Saving the War Crimes Tribunal." Foreign Policy no. 104 (Fall 1996): 72-85. Walsh, Brian. "Resolving the Human Rights Violations of a Previous Regime." World Affairs 158 (Winter 1996): 111-121.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"In the world of espionage the value of trust Is paramountÃ¢â¬ represents a valid statement to an extent. The characters values and Ideologies are a reflection of the context of which they live. The novel Smiley people by John Lee Care, the movie Spy Game, directed by Tony Scott and the Interview Kim Billy's great betrayal presented by Phillip Adams represent this statement through different portrayals of the world of espionage. These three texts exhibit a power struggle between communist and western democratic societies, both very different political ideologies.The world of espionage is fraught with manipulation, betrayal and deceit and aiming to achieve the Ã¢â¬Å"greater goodÃ¢â¬ . It is a world where its inhabitants will do anything Ã¢â¬â even if it means performing acts that are seen criminal by mainstream society Ã¢â¬â Just to complete a mission. It Is a world where information is gold and an important document Is worth more than a persons life. Trust sustains a relationship In the spy world, a relationship that allows communication and control of knowledge and power. The spy world demonstrates a context where trust Is a value, not valued by all who inhabit this world.For spies that Ã¢â¬Å"play the spy gameÃ¢â¬ they have to have trust in those that control their missions and must have trust in themselves, to be able to get the job done. But for others such as defectors and double agents trust is tool used to get information and used to manipulate and gain power over the opposing side. A clash between the personal and the professional values is seen in Tony Scoots Spy Game, through the character of Tom Bishop. It is shown in the scene where Bishop must bring Schmidt across the border from east to west Germany. When Bishop andSchmidt realism that they will get killed if they attempt to cross the border, Schmidt pleads with Bishop to take him Ã¢â¬Å"But my wife, my kidsÃ¢â¬ . When Schmidt says this we can see Bishops realization that Sc hmidt Is human and not just an expendable pawn, or an asset. This clash between the personal and professional values of Bishop challenges his moral outlook on life. However in order to stay alive and protect himself he must leave Schmidt, whys trust he has manipulated for use of his own organization and his own professional gain. Whilst having to trust someone who may be doing the same thing to him.The context has had an effect on the values of Bishop, his values compromised by the situation he has been placed in. The choice to leave Schmidt behind to die was not a choice that Bishop would have made on his own accord, yet he has had to. This is a direct result of his immediate context, which has forced a re-evaluation of his values. The value of trust one that all spies must have, has turned bishop against his personal humanity and has set him to achieve what Is seen as the greater good, to leave Schmidt because he Is less Important.The trust placed In agents to carry out the Nilsso n that they are assigned with Is a tepee for agencies to take in process of completing the mission. The agents who are to best that they should or mess it up completely, it is in these times that the value of trust is seen to be most paramount. An example in Tony Scoots Spy game is when Bishop is sent to manipulate the doctor to have the sheik assassinated however he let down Mir and he didn't get there in time so Mir had sent in a suicide bomber to blow the apartment building.Bishop had played on Emir's trust and let him down, after the explosion Bishop asks Mir if he's happy with the outcome Ã¢â¬Å"Seventy four casualties and an entire apartment block leveled, one dead terrorist. Yeah IM happy' is the reply from Mir. In this statement we can see the stark contrast in perspectives of success and the values required in order to obtain this success. Seventy four casualties for one terrorist is a high price to pay, but it shows that Mir is more about getting the Job done, and working for the greater good as he believes that their sacrifice is better than one terrorist living.Mir throughout the book is a representation of freedom pictured almost always with the American flag which is a presentation of the values upheld by the county and the values that he upholds within himself driving him to become better as a spy, the flag is a symbol of the trust placed in him by his superiors working in the CIA and other government organizations it is because of this trust and expectation that Mir pursues his missions to the fullest extend as he is not a person to those who trust in him down. George Smiley on the other hand, an old school spy born and raised in a democratic society.Stuck in his ways as a spy is more wary about who to trust. Smiley is enraged with the circus or MUM for breaking their promise to protect Vladimir. This trust that Smiley had placed in MUM, much like that of Mir in Bishop, is broken. Smiley must now take matters into his own hands not sure who to trust but close friends. To find the truth is what fuels Smiley search for the mystery behind the death of his old friend Vladimir. Smiley is a perfect representation of a mans internal struggle of conflicting values, and he must overcome the conflict to get to the bottom of the case an bring down Karl.The conflicting values is depicted in the quote Ã¢â¬Å"Wrestling with troubled dreamsÃ¢â¬ . Smiley eventually through internal conflicts of morals and values rings down Karl. Smiley disregards this as a victory as he had compromised values precious to him, he sees the victory as double edged the fact he caught his man but had to give up who he is to do this his views on the sanctity of human life differ from those of Mir, Smiley is seen throughout the novel to try and save people like Castrato's and not to let them die.His use of manipulation and deceit was what had allowed him to get the information he needed, but has left him feeling dejected that his morals and values have become irrelevant in order to achieve the greater good. Deception is the way of the spy and most of them have used methods of this nature to obtain information and as a way of being able to use people we see this in the interview Ã¢â¬Å"Elliot deceived by Kim Philly' Elliot was one of Philips friends inside MUM and the trust that he showed in Philly was the weak link in the relationship.Although some spies might consider the morals behind their actions on the other end of the scale there are those that don't have moral and will use trust for their own gain and take advantage of those closest to them. These are the people that totally n the novel Smiley People would be something along the lines of a evil master mind set to take smiley out at all costs. Karl however isn't, he has mixed his personal with professional because of the love for his daughter.Trust in the spy world is complicated due to the fact that everything is to be kept secret from each other, so how are you supposed to trust someone whilst they aren't telling you everything that they know. This is where trust comes into play, to be able to trust someone and their Judgment of what is right whilst figuring out for themselves what their values and morals say is right is what the fullest extend of the rust in the world of espionage.Trust in the spy world isn't at a constant in different contexts, situations, different people and agents will all see trust in a different light, and of different importance. Trust is what keeps agents alive to able to trust yourself at any time to do what is best for those around you and to trust those around you that they have your back. Yet there is no difference in those fighting and working for the greater good and those working against trust is recognized as a necessity and a value needed to be able to compete in the spy game.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
AIDS: The Silent Killer Introduction AIDS is one of the most commonly known sexually transmitted diseases. The last stages of HIV, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, are what we know as AIDS, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. HIV is similar to other viruses like the flu or common cold except the human immune system cannot destroy the virus. The virus can hide in the cells of the body for long periods of time and attacks important parts of the immune system like T-cells or CD4 cells.Once HIV destroys a lot of CD4 cells the human body can no longer fight against infections and diseases. AIDS is diagnosed when the body cannot fight against disease and the patient has one or more specific opportunistic infections (OIs), different types of cancer, or an extremely low number of CD4 cells. HIV lives in specific human blood and other body fluids. If those fluids enter the human blood stream then it is infected with HIV. Blood, semen, pre-seminal fluid, breast milk, vaginal fluids, and rectal mu cous contain high levels of HIV.Waste products like feces, nasal fluid, saliva, sweat, tears, urine, and vomit contain HIV but not enough to infect someone; unless blood is mixed with the waste products and there is direct contact with them. People can get HIV from anyone who is HIV positive or infected with the disease. 7 HIV affects most people from having sexual intercourse with an HIV positive person, sharing a needle with someone who is infected, drinking the breast milk of a HIV positive woman, or being birthed from a HIV positive woman. People used to get AIDs from injected blood donors, but now donated blood is screened for HIV. 9 Oral sex is another way people can get AIDs, but only if there are open sores in your mouth or bleeding gums. 10 Discussion HIV/AIDs did not come about until the early 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s. The United States was the first country to notice this different virus among homosexual males. 11 No one had any clue what this new virus was, it must have been terrif ying attempting to treat an unknown disease considering you would not know how to protect yourself from the disease as well.In 1982, scientists discovered that AIDS remains a sexually transmitted disease. Not until 1984 did researchers conclude that AIDS is caused by HIV. 12 Although HIV has become somewhat maintainable, during the early years of the AIDs virus a vaccine seemed impossible, and with almost 30 years since the virus first budded its head there is still no vaccine. 13 As I said earlier HIV is a virus, specifically a retrovirus. Retroviruses contain RNA for their genetic material, but once someone is infected the virus uses an enzyme called transcriptase to turn RNA into DNA. 4 The virus then continues to replicate itself.15 People usually do not realize they have HIV because it is a lentivirus and there is usually a long period of time between the time of infection and the sign of serious symptoms. 16 Animals have similar versions of HIV that have made good but not perf ect models of how HIV works. 17 HIV replicates at impeccable speeds creating billions of new HIV viruses to infect the body every day. 18 The virus is able to mutate and evolve which makes it that much harder to defeat the virus. 9 The CD4 cells and T cells are destroyed daily by HIV which eventually causes the immune system to regenerate or defeat infections. 20 HIV is able to hide in the cytoplasm of the cell that it infects or makes its way into the cellÃ¢â¬â¢s chromosomes. 21 The virus does this to hide from the immune system so it will not be destroyed. 22 Some drugs have been found to suppress HIV but cannot get rid of it because of HIVÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to hide in other cells. 23 Conclusion There is currently no cure for AIDS, but there are treatments available to prolong an HIV/AIDS patient from becoming extremely ill.The main treatment for HIV or AIDS is the antiretroviral drug. 24 This drug needs to be taken daily in order to keep HIV levels low in the body. 25 Patients u sually use combination therapy, taking two or more antiretroviral drugs, so that HIV does not become immune to the drug. 26 AIDS is a very deadly syndrome derived from an evil virus. HIV/AIDS is a powerful silent killer. Everyone should be tested for HIV because that is the only way to find out if you have the virus.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
For over a century Great Britain had ruled the colonies in America. Since the founding of the Chesapeake Bay colony in the south in 1607, and the Massachusetts Bay colony in the north in 1630, the colonies had relied on the crown for many of their needs. Over time the colonists established a social and economical system that was almost independent of the British Empire. In April of 1775, after many transgressions on both sides, the colonists decided that they no longer needed, or wanted the support, protection, and leadership of the country that founded them. There were many factors, both immediate, and longstanding that lead to the decision to fight for freedom from British rule. The American Revolution had some of its beginningsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The Navigational Acts were adhered to on the surface but were disobeyed by the common people when necessary. Another such act was the Proclamation of 1763. This inhibited the colonists from crossing the Appalachian Mountains for hunting or farming. Britain instilled this proclamation in order to cut the area Britain had to guard with soldiers. The colonists, however, took this as another way the English were controlling them and making them subservient to English authority, in defiance they clogged the westward trails. This is one of many examples of British or colonial acts being misinterpreted by their counterparts across the sea. However, one if the largest differences of opinion came with the colonies perception of taxation without representation. From the colonists point of view, it was impossible to consider themselves represented in Parliament unless they actually elected members to the House of Commons. This idea conflicted with the English principle of virtual representation, according to which each member of Parliament represented the interests of the whole country, even the empire, despite the fact that this electoral base consisted of only a small minority of property owners from a given district. The rest of the community wasShow MoreRelatedThe Revolution : The Cause Of The American Revolution1898 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages The American Revolution was the turning point for the colonies that made up the United States today. It was the war that freed the colonists from British control. But what actually caused the American Revolution? Well, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no simple answer to that question. In fact, most o f the causes acted as if they were dominoes. These events can be categorized in four periods of time or setting. These groups are, Salutary neglect, Mercantilism, Boston, and Unity of protests. Salutary neglect was the ideaRead MoreCauses Of The American Revolution1202 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThroughout history many revolutions took place, ranging from the unremarkable to a truly memorable, as the French revolution, the American Revolution, and the Bolshevik Revolution, but American revolution took place in 1775-1783. The revolution was different from other revolution because of growing tensions between residents of Great BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s 13 North American colonies and the colonial government because American revolution was not like the others. This revolution was not like the others becauseRead MoreCauses Of The American Revolution738 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesas the American Revolution, or the Revolutionary War. The American Revolution was a war between the colonists of America and Grea t Britain and they were fighting over the independence of America from Britain. This war lasted until 1781, when the British surrendered to the Americans, As a result, America is a fully independent country and it has stayed that way since that day. There were many causes of the war, The Stamp Act, the Boston Tea Party, and Lexington and Concord. The first cause of theRead MoreCauses Of The American Revolution913 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages While the american revolution was caused from taxes, it was also formed from the effects of a corrupt system of government. The effects of britains rule was a much bigger flame for the revolution then the taxes placed upon citizens. The american revolution was an event that will forever shape us as a country. It was a tough war filled with blood and brutal acts of violence, but it was also an awakening for the colonies that will later become the United States, it showed that while under a governmentRead MoreCauses Of The American Revolution880 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The American Revolution is the most important time in all of American history. This brought the birth of a new country and the treasured constitution. In the beginning, colonists were proud to be British. In the years to come, there were small occurrences that bothered the colonists and led to the Revolution. Other countries contributed to the start of a crueller British control. The French and Indian War caused King George III to introduce expensive taxes (Pavao). These taxes came about becauseRead MoreCauses Of The American Revolution1335 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswere multiple causes for the American Revolution, but the most important was the violation and deprivation of rights from the American People. The American people were faced with multiple acts and taxes that violated and took away their rights. Americans were continuously being taxed after the French and Indian War by acts like the sugar act, the stamp act, the Townshend acts,the tea act, and many more(Hedtke, et al., The Ame rican Saga). Despite all the taxes being placed on the Americans and the thingsRead MoreCauses of the American Revolution953 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEmily Thou Mr. G./ Period 1 September 14, 2012 Causes of the American Revolution The American Revolution began in 1755 as an open conflict between the thirteen colonies and Great Britain. The Treaty of Paris had ended that war in 1783, giving the colonies their own independence. There are many factors contributing to the start of the Revolution, but the war began as the way The Great Britain treated the colonies versus the way the colonies felt they should be treated. For example, the FrenchRead MoreCauses Of The American Revolution886 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe American Revolution began on April 19, 1775. It was the war between Great Britain and its colonies located in the New World. The colonists, as many historians put it, were like children rebelling against the motherland; however, they had many valid reasons for this revolt, including their desire for freedom and independence. My World History textbook says freedom was falsely promised when the colonists had settled (Krull 868). The more direct causes of this widely known rebellion include taxesRead MoreCaus es Of The American Revolution1344 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAmerican Revolution The causes of the American Revolution go back to the beginning of salutary neglect and the French and Indian War, as well as changes in the thinking of society. The effects of these events and other factors led to pressure within the colonies, ultimately resulting in rebellion. There were five factors to the nature of the American Revolution: The Environment, The Enlightenment, Self-Government, Economic Independence and Colonial Unity. The first factor that led to the AmericanRead MoreCauses Of The American Revolution813 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCauses Before the American Revolution, any imports from England from us had to come in ships owned by the British. Also, we could only sell tobacco and sugar to England. The British took French territory in Canada, east of the Mississippi River, and Spanish Florida which led to the American Revolution. Due to the war, Britain went in debt so, the British government placed taxes on goods so they could make more money. But thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not all that led to the American Revolution, both the us and the French
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ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Three Gorges Dam is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest hydroelectric dam based on generating capacity. It is 1.3 miles wide, over 600 feet in height, and has a reservoir that stretches 405 square miles. The reservoir helps control flooding on the Yangtze River basin and allows 10,000-ton ocean freighters to sail into the interior of China six months out of the year. The damÃ¢â¬â¢s 32 main turbines are capable of generating as much electricity as 18 nuclear power stations and it is built to withstand a magnitude 7.0 earthquake. The dam cost $59 billion and 15 years to construct. It is the largest project in ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s history since the Great Wall. History of the Three Gorges Dam The idea for the Three Gorges Dam was first proposed by Dr. Sun Yat-Sen, the pioneer of the Republic of China, in 1919. In his article, entitled Ã¢â¬Å"A Plan to Development IndustryÃ¢â¬ , Sun Yat-Sen mentions the possibility of damming the Yangtze River to help control floods and generate electricity. In 1944, an American dam expert named J.L. Savage was invited to do field research on possible locations for the project. Two years later, the Republic of China signed a contract with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation to design the dam. More than 50 Chinese technicians were then sent to the United States to study and participate in the creation process. However, the project was shortly abandoned due to the Chinese civil war that followed World War II. Talks of the Three Gorges Dam resurfaced in 1953 due to continuous floods that occurred on the Yangtze that year, killing over 30,000 people. One year later, the planning phase began once more, this time under the collaboration of Soviet experts. After two years of political debates over the size of the dam, the project was finally approved by the Communist Party. Unfortunately, plans for the construction were once again interrupted, this time by the disastrous political campaigns of the Ã¢â¬Å"Great Leap ForwardÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"Proletarian Cultural Revolution. The market reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping in 1979 emphasized the necessity to produce more electricity for economic growth. With approval from the new leader, the location of the Three Gorges Dam was then officially determined, to be located at Sandouping, a town in the Yiling District of the Yichang prefecture, in the province of Hubei. Finally, on December 14, 1994, 75-years since inception, the construction of the Three Gorges Dam finally began. The dam was operational by 2009, but continuous adjustments and additional projects are still ongoing. Negative Impacts of the Three Gorges Dam There is no denying of the Three Gorges DamÃ¢â¬â¢s significance to ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic ascension, but its construction has created an assortment of new problems for the country. In order for the dam to exist, over a hundred towns had to be submerged, resulting in the relocation of 1.3 million people. The resettlement process has damaged much of the land as rapid deforestation lead to soil erosion. Furthermore, many of the new designated areas are uphill, where the soil is thin and agricultural productivity is low. This has become a major problem since many of those forced to migrate were poor farmers, who rely heavily on crop outputs. Protests and landslides have become very common in the region. The Three Gorges Dam area is rich in archaeological and cultural heritage. Many different cultures have inhabited the areas that are now underwater, including the Daxi (circa 5000-3200 B.C.E), which are theÃ earliest Neolithic culture in the region, and its successors, the Chujialing (circa. 3200-2300 B.C.E), the Shijiahe (circa 2300-1800 B.C.E) and the Ba (circa 2000-200 B.C.E). Due to the damming, it is now virtually impossible to collect and document these archaeological sites. In 2000, it was estimated that the area inundated contained at least 1,300 cultural heritage places. It is no longer possible for scholars to recreate the settings where historical battles took place or where cities were built. The construction also changed the landscape, making it impossible now for people to witness the scenery which inspired so many ancient painters and poets. The creation of the Three Gorges Dam has lead to the endangerment and extinction of many plant and animals. The Three Gorges region is considered a biodiversity hotspot. It is home to over 6,400 plant species, 3,400 insect species, 300 fish species, and more than 500 terrestrial vertebrate species. The disruption of the riverÃ¢â¬â¢s natural flow dynamics due to blockage will affect the migratory paths of fish. Due to the increase of ocean vessels in the river channel, physical injuries such as collisions and noise disturbances have greatly accelerated the demise of local aquatic animals. The Chinese river dolphin which is native to the Yangtze River and the Yangtze finless porpoise have now become two of the most endangered cetaceans in the world. The hydrological alternations also affect fauna and flora downstream. Sediment build-up in the reservoir has altered or destroyed floodplains, river deltas, ocean estuaries, beaches, and wetlands, which provide habitation for spawning animals. Other industrial processes, such as the release of toxic substances into the water also compromise the biodiversity of the region. Because the water flow is slowed due to the reservoir impoundment, the pollution will not be diluted and flushed to the sea in the same manner as before the damming. Additionally, by filling the reservoir, thousands of factories, mines, hospitals, garbage dumping sites, and graveyards have been flooded. These facilities can subsequently release certain toxins such as arsenic, sulfides, cyanides, and mercury into the water system. Despite helping China reduce its carbon emissions immensely, the social and ecological consequences of the Three Gorges Dam have made it very unpopular to the international community. References Ponseti, Marta Lopez-Pujol, Jordi. The Three Gorges Dam Project in China: History and Consequences. Revista HMiC , University of Autonoma de Barcelona: 2006 Kennedy, Bruce (2001). ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Three Gorges Dam. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/china.50/asian.superpower/three.gorges/