Monday, December 30, 2019
Binomial distributions are an important class of discrete probability distributions. These types of distributions are a series of n independent Bernoulli trials, each of which has a constant probability p of success. As with any probability distribution we would like to know what its mean or center is. For this we are really asking, Ã¢â¬Å"What is the expected value of the binomial distribution?Ã¢â¬ Intuition vs. Proof If we carefully think about a binomial distribution, it is not difficult to determine that the expected value of this type of probability distribution is np. For a few quick examples of this, consider the following: If we toss 100 coins, and X is the number of heads, the expected value of X is 50 (1/2)100.If we are taking a multiple choice test with 20 questions and each question has four choices (only one of which is correct), then guessing randomly would mean that we would only expect to get (1/4)20 5 questions correct. In both of these examples we see thatÃ E[ X ] n p. Two cases is hardly enough to reach a conclusion. Although intuition is a good tool to guide us, it is not enough to form a mathematical argument and to prove that something is true. How do we prove definitively that the expected value of this distribution is indeed np? From the definition of expected value and the probability mass function for the binomial distribution of n trials of probability of success p, we can demonstrate that our intuition matches with the fruits of mathematical rigor. We need to be somewhat careful in our work and nimble in our manipulations of the binomial coefficient that is given by the formula for combinations. We begin by using the formula: E[ X ] Ã £ x0n x C(n, x)px(1-p)n Ã¢â¬â x. Since each term of the summation is multiplied by x, the value of the term corresponding to x 0 will be 0, and so we can actually write: E[ X ] Ã £ x 1n x C(n , x) p x (1 Ã¢â¬â p) n Ã¢â¬â x . By manipulating the factorials involved in the expression for C(n, x) we can rewrite x C(n, x) n C(n Ã¢â¬â 1, x Ã¢â¬â 1). This is true because: x C(n, x) x n!/(x!(n Ã¢â¬â x)!) n!/((x Ã¢â¬â 1)!(n Ã¢â¬â x)!) n(n Ã¢â¬â 1)!/((x Ã¢â¬â 1)!((n Ã¢â¬â 1) Ã¢â¬â (x Ã¢â¬â 1))!) n C(n Ã¢â¬â 1, x Ã¢â¬â 1). It follows that: E[ X ] Ã £ x 1n n C(n Ã¢â¬â 1, x Ã¢â¬â 1) p x (1 Ã¢â¬â p) n Ã¢â¬â x . We factor out the n and one p from the above expression: E[ X ] np Ã £ x 1n C(n Ã¢â¬â 1, x Ã¢â¬â 1) p x Ã¢â¬â 1 (1 Ã¢â¬â p) (n Ã¢â¬â 1) - (x Ã¢â¬â 1) . A change of variables r x Ã¢â¬â 1 gives us: E[ X ] np Ã £ r 0n Ã¢â¬â 1 C(n Ã¢â¬â 1, r) p r (1 Ã¢â¬â p) (n Ã¢â¬â 1) - r . By the binomial formula, (x y)k Ã £ r 0 kC( k, r)xr yk Ã¢â¬â r the summation above can be rewritten: E[ X ] (np) (p (1 Ã¢â¬â p))n Ã¢â¬â 1 np. The above argument has taken us a long way. From beginning only with the definition of expected value and probability mass function for a binomial distribution, we have proved that what our intuition told us. The expected value of the binomial distribution B( n, p) is n p.
Thursday, December 26, 2019
Although communication involves interaction between people, the person you are interacting with does not always need to be physically there with you. Think about something you have seen on the television, a song you have heard on the radio today, or a story you have read in a magazine or a newspaper Ã¢â¬â the person who is communicating with you is not there, but is still communicating with you, though different methods. Within health and social care, there are many different ways that communication occurs Ã¢â¬â a large amount of this is called interpersonal communication, namely taking place between two people. This could be speaking directly to someone using your service, such as a patient, or a relative, or speaking to other colleagues, health workers and professionals. Good communication skills are vital for a number of reasons, and are vital within health and social care to ensure that: Ã¢â¬ ¢ positive relationships are developed with service users, their family and friends, to ensure the needs of the person are identified and met Ã¢â¬ ¢ positive relationships are developed with work colleagues and the professionals that you will come into contact with Ã¢â¬ ¢ information is shared by people involved in the care of the service user Ã¢â¬ ¢ information about the work carried out with the service user is reported on Key terms Interaction Ã¢â¬â communication exchange that occurs between two people. Interpersonal Ã¢â¬â between people. Activity Make a list of all the different ways that you communicateShow MoreRelatedThe Role of Communication and Interpersonal Interaction in Health and Social-Care1186 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe role of communication and interpersonal interaction in health and social-care Introduction This assignment is centred on effective interpersonal interaction and good communication in health and social care which is achieved through the use of multiple communication methods and techniques and the analysis of how certain types of people think and communicate. P1 Explain the role of effective communication and interpersonal interaction in health and social care Key Terms Formal- The useRead MoreThe Role Of Communication And Interpersonal Interaction On Health And Social Care2926 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesAssignment 1: The Role of Communication and Interpersonal Interaction in Health and Social Care In a health and social care setting there are two different types of communication and those are verbal communication and non-verbal communication. Verbal communication is the way you talk to someone and non-verbal communication is your body language towards someone. Verbal Communication There are many different types of verbal communication. One is whether you have clear speech. Having clear speechRead MoreThe Effects Of Inappropriate Interpersonal Communication On Health And Social Care Settings1210 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdealing with inappropriate interpersonal communication between individuals in health and social care settings. I am reviewing the methods how to use interpersonal communication to deal with individuals in health and social care settings. Interpersonal communication is defined as the verbal and non-verbal interaction between two interdependent people (occasionally more). This comparatively is an easy definition suggests a variety of properties. Interpersonal communication process by replacing humanRead More- the Role of Effective Communication and Interpersonal Interaction in a Health and Social Care Setting.3197 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesUnit 2: Communication and values | | Yvette Moyo | Centre Number : 20669 | | | | | Contents Page * The role of effective communication and interpersonal interaction in a health and social care setting. * Theories of communication Keywords: Communication Interpersonal skills Verbal language and examples Non verbal language examples Service user Care provider This report will cover the role and importance of effectiveRead MoreThe Role Of Effective Communication And Interpersonal Interaction On A Health And Social Care Context1952 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesExplain the role of effective communication and interpersonal interaction in a health and social care context. Communication is the way of exchanging information, receiving and giving a message to someone or more than one person, this is also known as passing information on by visuals, speech,writing,behaviour and signals. In a health and social care setting, Communication is incredibly important because service users needs need to have been met and the messages need to be clear for a person toRead MoreThe Role Of Effective Communication And Interpersonal Interaction Within A Health And Social Care Context?1702 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesP1) Explain the role of effective communication and interpersonal interaction in a health and social care context? Communication is the process of exchanging information, thoughts and feelings between people, through speaking, writing or body language. Effective communication is about more than just exchanging information. This concept makes sure that the transmitted message is received and understood by the other person in the exact way it was intended. However the other person has to demonstrateRead MoreThe role of effective communication and interpersonal interaction in a health and social care context. (P1)1723 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿The role of effective communication and interpersonal interaction in a health and social care context. (P1) This booklet aims to explain the role of effective communication and interpersonal interaction in a health and social care context. Effective communication in a health and social care context is important because things need to be heard and said clearly. An example of when effective communication is important is if a nurse is having a conversation with a doctor and discussing a patientsRead MoreUnderstand factors that influence communication and interpersonal interaction in health and social care environments2400 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Unit 1-Task 2 P3, P3, M2, D1 Understand factors that influence communication and interpersonal interaction in health and social care environments This booklet is about people who may have difficulty communicating with someone else and may need extra added help and how to overcome the communication barrier. One to one between a care worker and a service user who has a hearing impairment. It is morning and the service user is just getting up after a difficult nightÃ¢â¬â¢s sleep and in turn willRead MoreP1 Ã¢â¬â Explain the Role of Effective Communication and Interpersonal Interaction in a Health and Social Care Context1589 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesP1 Ã¢â¬â Explain the role of effective communication and interpersonal interaction in a health and social care context Communication is highly important, especially in an elderly care setting. It is useful in many different ways and situations, for example; if the service user had vision impairments, it is important that the professional speaks loud and clearly pronunciating properly however is not patronising in any way making the service user feel uncomfortable. This gets important information, suchRead MoreExplain the Role of Effective Communication and Interpersonal Interaction Within a Health and Social Care Setting4822 Words Ã |Ã 20 PagesExplain the role of effective communication and interpersonal interaction within a health and social care setting By Ellena Hall Figure 1 Figure 1 Contents Page: Page 3: Introduction Pages 4-7: Main Text Pages: 8- 9 Conclusion Page: 10 Definitions Page: 11 Bibliography Introduction: I am writing this report to inform year 11 students about effective communication which can be used during work placement in a health and social care setting. This is due to concerns
Saturday, December 21, 2019
Coraline: I compared and contrasted the book to the movie of Coraline. For starters, the book was released in 2002 and the movie was aired in 2009. Coraline was transformed into a movie to show more in detail of the character appearance and actions. Since the movie was released after the book, some additions to the movie include: the character, Wybie, the other mother swallowing the key, the full name of Mr. B., and what Coraline was searching for was different (book: soulsÃ¢â¬â¢ movie: buttons). The majority of changes made between the book and movie were made in events and characters in the other world. Oddly enough the other mother is not a part of this change. The biggest change occurs when Coraline faces her other father. There is noÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In the movie, they mix up characters and events from Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass. Alice is determined to be the Alice that should slay the Jabberwocky, but the Red Queen tries to kill her. Alice is able to infiltrate the Red QueenÃ¢â¬â¢s palace with the help of the White Queen, and steal the sword that will kill the Jabberwocky. They fight and Alice wins. When she goes back home, she is apprenticed to a shipping merchant because no self-respecting woman ever gets married. These differences effect the plot line and it seems as if these were two completely different plots. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz: I compared and contrasted the book, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz to the movie, The Wizard of Oz. The Wizard of Oz movie was released in 1939 and has captured viewers for years. The book, by L. Frank Baum was written in 1900 and was the inspiration behind the timeless classic of the movie. However, the movie does not follow the book at all. As a matter of fact, the names and overall idea is the only similarities to the book. The main difference between the book and movie is that in the movie Dorothy is simply dreaming and in the book Dorothy actually travels to the Land of Oz. The movie portrays the story as a dream that Dorothy has with people inShow MoreRelatedCoraline Movie And Movie Essay1020 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesI will be comparing the novel Ã¢â¬Å"CoralineÃ¢â¬ , written by Neil Gaiman and the movie Ã¢â¬Å"CoralineÃ¢â¬ , direct by Henry Selick (Netflix 2009 version). There are two main differences that I noticed between the two mediums. The novel was a story about a girl and her journey by herself and the movie included a male character that helped her on her journey. The other difference that I noticed was that in the book, Coraline was searching for marbles and in the movie, she was searching for button eyes. The book
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
The Story The Minister s Black Veil is very interesting in many different ways, it catches the reader s attention. It uses American Romanticism, that is an interesting thing to use in a story to catch the reader s attention. What that is, is to elevate the imagination over reason. today Edgar Allen Poe remains popular for his hunting poems and suspenseful stories. American Romantic writers differ than the European romanticism writers. Declaration of Independence used a lot of American romanticism. The Declaration Of Independence is a very historical and important document. There were many great American Romanticism writers that wrote lots of stories to the public about themselves or about others. Washington Loving, Edgar Allen Poe whichÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Many people look at him in a strange way because that black veil usually represents a bad sign that is dark. Many people thought that he was wearing the black veil because he had killed someone or done some other bad and dark things. But Mr Hooper does not wear it because he killed someone. There is a Priest that is known to wear a black veil But he did not wear it because he killed someone in a bad way. He will wear it because he did kill someone, but it was unintentional, it was his friend and he killed him by accident and he felt really bad and sorry about it that he decided to wear a black veil for the rest of his life in memory of his friend that he will remember for the rest of his life. in ( Nathaniel Hawthorne 337) it introduces him wearing the black veil, and in ( Nathaniel Hawthorne 338 ) they explain the secret scene which it is not what people thought that it would be they were thinking a whole different thing. I personally was thinking a different bad reason why he was wearing that, I was thinking that he had killed someone. Another way that The Minister s Black Veil uses American Romanticism is that it uses supernatural. Supernatural refers to God, which is used in many different occas ions in this story of the minister and his black veil. For example, it uses it when they talk about Mr Hooper s scene about his black veil in ( Nathaniel Hawthorne 339). Mr Hooper is a romantic character that is very interesting to
Friday, December 13, 2019
In his book, People Care, Thom Dick shows us that while it is imperative to know and perform all the medical procedures well, it is also important to treat patients with kindness and respect. He points out that most people donÃ¢â¬â¢t remember much about medical procedures performed, but they do remember how they were treated. Also, he demonstrates that how patients are treated plays a big role in whether or not they decide to pursue malpractice litigation against healthcare providers. We will write a custom essay sample on Important to Treat Patients with Kindness and Respect or any similar topic only for you Order Now If patients are handled with gentleness and respect, they are more likely to forgive mistakes. He begins his book by giving us three major mistakes that the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) has made since its founding. The first mistake was to support hiring people that were inclined to hate their jobs. These people were thrill seekers and just wanted to be heroes. They only cared primarily about themselves and not enough about the patient. In order to enjoy and do well in the EMS profession, Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) need to naturally like people and have a love for helping them. The second mistake was that the EMTs were taught to expect the wrong things. They were led to believe that every call would be exciting. In reality, most calls are routine and are not exciting at all. The last mistake was that many EMS administrators treated their workers with disrespect. They applied manufacturing measures to EMS quality which made the EMTs feel less valuable. Thom Dick wants us to remember that EMS is not manufacturing; it is the most important people business ever. Next, Mr. Dick stresses that the EMTÃ¢â¬â¢s personal safety always comes first. He believes that they need to develop safety habits if they are to stay alive and healthy. One of the gifts that EMS gives back is situational awareness. EMTs will be put into many dangerous situations and will need situational awareness in order to stay out of harmÃ¢â¬â¢s way. Mr. Dick also believes that another way to stay safe is to never drive the ambulance too fast or in any other irresponsible way. Thom Dick emphasizes the need to respect others no matter how strange or different they may seem to us. EMTs meet a wide variety of people out in the field and must learn to accept them as they are. It is not an EMTÃ¢â¬â¢s job to judge other peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ personalities. Their job is to provide the best care that they are able to give. Mr. Dick feels that it is important to take the time to understand how patients are feeling. Many of the people that EMTs will meet are scared and need someone to help them feel better. One of the most important things an EMT can do for them is to simply smile. The smile needs to be genuine or the patient will feel like it is all an act and the EMT doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really care. He next expresses the need to develop professional etiquette toward everyone that they meet. Respect and kindness should be shown to every person that EMTs come upon in the field. This includes other medical professionals, first responders, other drivers, co-workers, and patients. EMTs should listen to them and do all they can to cooperate. This will be easiest if they naturally like people and have no problem respecting others. Additionally, Mr. Dick feels that professional etiquette includes maintaining a professional appearance. If EMTs are poorly groomed or go around with an unkempt uniform, it reflects badly on themselves, their colleagues, and their profession. In Mr. DickÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion, most of the so called Ã¢â¬Å"system abusersÃ¢â¬ are simply people who are overwhelmed in life or just lonely. They become desperate for someone to talk to and they know EMTs will always respond and most likely listen to them. They deserve sympathy however and not distain. Many of these people are homeless, having no one in their lives to talk to or listen to them. The author wants us to remember that, with a couple of bad breaks, we could end up homeless too and that these people should be treated with the same level of respect as everyone else. According to Mr. Dick, another group that deserves respect is the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s family members. If a patient is in crisis, the family is most likely in crisis as well. They can be very helpful in such things as giving the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s medical history, medications, and other useful information to an EMT. The family can also become formidable adversaries if they feel that the patient is being mistreated. EMTs should always listen to them and show that they really do care about their family member. Furthermore, Mr. Dick believes that being able to give comfort to the family is a required skill for all healthcare providers to have. He further states that the elderly are probably the biggest group of people that EMTs will treat in their careers. The author gives several examples in his book of how the elderly can be different from other patients and how certain things can affect them more. Mr. Dick also wants EMTs to understand how the elderly feel about the current condition of their lives. They have gone from being independent in all areas in their lives to needing elp getting dressed and cleaning themselves. They are people just like everyone else and deserve to be treated as such. Mr. Dick next warns us that EMTs will come in contact with many violent people and that they need to do all they can to stay out of danger. When EMTs come upon these people, they must do their best to keep control of their emotions and not retaliate in any way. Violent patients should still be treated with respect and still need to be cared for. Additionally, Mr. Dick informs us that EMTs may be put in a situation where they will have to Ã¢â¬Å"take-downÃ¢â¬ and restrain the patient. He believes that if they must do this, proper restraints should be used and they should still listen to the patient. If the patient starts to complain of breathing difficulty, the EMT must do what he can to help them. Thom Dick and his co-authors obviously put a lot of thought into writing this book. It is full of practical ways to treat our patients with respect and how to stay safe while in the field. I strongly believe that all EMS professionals and students should read this book to gain understanding of some of the challenges and dangers they will face in this critical and demanding profession. How to cite Important to Treat Patients with Kindness and Respect, Essay examples
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Organizational Structure and Organizational Culture. Answer: Introduction The following paper focuses on the various factors of the organizational structure and organizational culture. As it is a proven fact that organization and culture are very important aspects to thrive in the competitive business environment in the modern era. The selected organization for this paper is Flight Centre that is considered one of the leading organizations in the travel industry. The headquarter of this organization is situated at Brisbane in Queensland. They are considered as the largest travel outlet in the country of Australia (Flight Centre 2017). This organization was founded by graham Turner and Geoff Harris. It serves the various countries like United Kingdom, Canada, United States, United Arab Emirates, South Africa, Hong Kong, Singapore, India, China and others. The company has an annual turnover of $17 billion and the organizational structure and organizational culture of this organization has given them a unique place (Flight Centre 2017). Organizational culture Organizational culture is a concept in which various concepts are included. These various concepts are the values, goals, missions and objectives of the organizations, beliefs of the individuals, the management, faith and loyalty of the customers and several other things (Alvesson 2012). The term cultural web is also associated with the organizational culture. Every organization has their own culture and they try to be unique in this aspect. This is the method that designs the ways in which the people in the organization, the internal stakeholders like the employees and the managers should be behaving (Alvesson 2012). All the organizations must follow a certain culture by which they can achieve success in this extremely competitive culture. The employees must follow the various rules and regulations by which they are bound to dress, act and behave (Nica 2013). This represents the organizations value. In other words, the organizational culture is the face of the organization. These cultures have a deep impact on the minds of the other people like the external stakeholders like the customers, suppliers and investors (Nica 2013). Organizational culture theories There are some theories and models regarding to the organizational culture. These include the power culture, role culture, task culture and person culture (Shafritz, Ott and Jang 2015). Power culture In this kind of culture, a group of persons hold the power in the organization. These few individuals make their influence scatter through the organization. In this culture, the skills of the employees are generally overlooked and the management ranks them on what they have achieved rather than how they act or how they do the things (Shafritz, Ott and Jang 2015). As a result of this culture, the individuals can do good decision-making very quickly. However, this culture does not prove effective in long-term effectiveness. The deterioration of an organization can be due to the strong power culture. Role culture In this type of culture, the organization sets up their culture simply based on the rules. These rules have to be maintained strictly and the employees and other people in the organization should be aware of their roles and responsibilities (Shafritz, Ott and Jang 2015). The power source in this of culture is determined by the certain role of a person in their organization structure. The organizations who follow the role cultures suffer from slow decision making process all over. The organizations with role cultures are generally bureaucratic (Terry 2015). Organizational Structure The organizational structure is a certain strategy that is based on the visions and objectives of the particular organization (Ashkenas et al. 2015) The perfect organizational structure has the right to determine how the different things in an organization should be done, what roles and responsibilities should be assigned to certain able persons. The control of the organization should remain in the hands of the best persons and they should be on the same page with a good coordination (Ashkenas et al. 2015) The information should flow between the different levels of management. The decision making should be swift one by the implementation of a proper organizational structure. Theories and models of organizational structure There are many theories and models about the organization structure in the business context. These theories are classical organization theory, neoclassical organization theory, contingency theory and systems theory (Daft 2012). Contingency theory This theory of the organizational structure deals with the conflicts within organization. The structure should be designed in such a way that conflicts can be avoided. However, it has been believed that conflict is unavoidable in organizations but the contingency theory says that conflicts can be managed (Daft 2012). The organizations set their targets to meet their strategic needs in many ways. The organizations should be able to adapt changes in business environment and the people sitting on the organizational structure should take the decisions based on the contingent or current decisions. Organizational culture of Flight Centre As a leading organization in the travel industry in Australia, Flight Centre maintains an absolutely unique organizational culture that makes them thrive in and progress in the modern business environment. They believe to give importance to their employees as they are one of the most important things in the organization (Daft 2012). This shared value between the employees andmanagement helps to have a good organizational culture and success. The organization has been decorated with many things and colorful layouts that have motivated them to show their creativity and originality. Many positive cultures have been initiated to inspire the employees in great many ways. This has helped to build the characters of individuals and teams. The office environment has been designed so effectively that the employees love to come to work and take new challenges to add to the better outcomes for Flight Centre. This motivation factor has worked well for achieving a better productivity for them. The employees are much satisfied as a compatible workplace environment has been managed for them. The employees learn to collaborate with each other in order to yield high productivity (Melo et al. 2013). Plans for communal spaces have been encouraged so that conversation between employees can be done on a regular basis with the sharing of ideas and thoughts. Organizational structure of Flight Centre The organizational structure is something that guides the organization towards success. The organizational structure in the travel industry must be customer oriented as customer satisfaction is the core focus for this industry (Armstrong et al. 2015). It is simple and team-oriented. There is a small group consisting of three to seven people known as the family. These are the retail stores. Next up is the village that comprises of four to five families. They tend to work closely because of the geographic closeness. The next step is the country that has five to seven stores. The country leader leads to an effective communication between the team members along with other specialist staff. The decisions are taken by the leaders by brainstorming process or information sharing. The employees are guided by these country leaders and experts to achieve the goals and objectives of the Flight Centre. Here, the team-based structure is maintained which is very effective in gaining the organizatio nal success (Kaufman and Guerra-Lopez 2013). Conclusion This paper can be concluded by saying that Flight Centre has acquired some unique organizational culture and structure that has assisted them to be on the top of the tree in their industry. Their organizational objectives and missions will be on the same line with their adaptation of these strategies will surely improve their team work and take them to glory in their business field. This is why organizational culture and structure are the best vehicles for the organizations towards success. References Alvesson, M., 2012.Understanding organizational culture. Sage. Armstrong, G., Kotler, P., Harker, M. and Brennan, R., 2015.Marketing: an introduction. Pearson Education. Ashkenas, R., Ulrich, D., Jick, T. and Kerr, S., 2015.The boundaryless organization: Breaking the chains of organizational structure. John Wiley Sons. Daft, R., 2012.Organization theory and design. Nelson Education. Flight Centre. (2017). Cheap Flights by Australia's Unbeatable Travel Agents - Flight Centre. [online] Available at: https://www.flightcentre.com.au/ [Accessed 3 Sep. 2017]. Kaufman, R. and Guerra-Lopez, I., 2013.Needs assessment for organizational success. American Society for Training and Development. Melo, C.D.O., Cruzes, D.S., Kon, F. and Conradi, R., 2013. Interpretative case studies on agile team productivity and management.Information and Software Technology,55(2), pp.412-427. Nica, E., 2013. Organizational culture in the public sector.Economics, Management and Financial Markets,8(2), p.179. Shafritz, J.M., Ott, J.S. and Jang, Y.S., 2015.Classics of organization theory. Cengage Learning. Terry, L.D., 2015.Leadership of public bureaucracies: The administrator as conservator. Routledge.
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Foundations of Research Enquiry in Health for Content Analysis? Answer: The purpose of critically reviewing journal articles is to develop the ability to understand the articles and review the scientific literature (Kowalski et al., 2014). For carrying out such critical review, there is a necessity to read the article in a proper manner for understanding what the report is about, the person who is reporting and how the subject is being investigated (Jha et al., 2013). It is very much crucial to take into consideration all the details and implications of the research (Elo et al., 2014). Writing a critical review implies that a systematic examination is done, and there is a discussion of all the details of the research. It is vital to comment on both the limitations and strengths of the research while taking a position with other literature for supporting the statements (Polga Thomas, 2013). The present critical review is of a research article using the MSC-554 Guidelines for Reviewing Research Parts I II. Article: Adachi, P., Willoughby, T. (2013). Its Not How Much You Play, but How Much You Enjoy the Game: The Longitudinal Associations Between Adolescents Self-Esteem and the Frequency Versus Enjoyment of Involvement in Sports.J Youth Adolescence,43(1), 137-145. Review: The reason for conducting the research study was to examine the longitudinal association between frequency and enjoyment of involvement of sports and self-esteem of adolescents. Involvement in sports has been identified to be related with positive and constructive youth development in the society for a long time. This includes self-esteem, which makes up an important element of the features of human being that are enhanced by taking part in sports (Marques et al., 2016). Interestingly, the involvement in sports and self-esteem has been taken up for analyzing the impact both have on each other. The frequency of participating in sports has been both longitudinally and concurrently associated with higher self-esteem (Noordstar et al., 2016). There lies a hypothesis that involvement in sports causes higher degree of self-esteem with time. This is considered as a socializing effect. However, no research has been undertaken for testing the fact that higher levels of self-esteem results in more participation in sports, considered as a selection effect (Finez et al., 2012). Another very important aspect of participation in sports having relation with self-esteem is the extent to which youths enjoy taking part in sports and getting actively involved in it (Joseph et al., 2014). However, no research had been conducted previously on this concerned topic in spite of the fact that this aspect draws much attention for analyzing the impact of enjoyment of sports on self-esteem. A gap had therefore been formed in the literature that can throw light on this aspect. The present study was to address such significant gap in the literature. The aims of the research were two-fold. The first aim of the research was to undertake an examination of whether self-esteem can make a prediction of the frequency of involvement in sports with time or whether the frequency of involvement in sports can make a prediction of self-esteem with time. This was done by conducting an examination of the bidirectional association between self-esteem and the frequency of involvement in sports. The second aim of the research was to research on the bidirectional association between self-esteem and the enjoyment of sports with time. For the first goal, it was hypothesized that higher levels of self-esteem would foresee greater frequency of involvement in sports over time. This was the selection effect. There was no explicit hypothesis on the relation between frequency of involvement in sports and prediction of self-esteem. For the second goal, it was hypothesized that enjoyment of sports would be associated with self-esteem. There was no specific hypothesis regarding whether self-esteem would make a prediction of the enjoyment of sports or whether the enjoyment of sports would make a prediction of self-esteem. For addressing the goals, a longitudinal study was undertaken over a period of 4 years on high school students. There was a simultaneous assessment of the selection and socializing hypothesis in the relation between self-esteem and frequency of involvement in sports. The research also studied the bidirectional relationship between self-esteem and enjoyment of sports while controlling for the frequency of involvement in sports. Finally, there was an assessment of whether gender acted as an important moderator of the established results. A longitudinal study is the observational study where data is accumulated for a long period from the same subjects. Such study makes a comparison over time, unlike cross-sectional study, where such comparisons are made a one point of time (Le Cam et al., 2015). As the research aim was to determine the visions and feelings of the participants depending on a variable that requires long time span, that is involvement in sports, the approach of undertaking longitudinal study was best. The advantage of a longitudinal study is that there is a chance of detecting developments and changes in the features of the concerned participants in details (Magnusson, 2015). The study was conducted on 1492 number of students from eight high schools in Ontario, Canada, over a period of 4 years. The mean age was 9 to 13 years, ten months. The special feature of the study was that it was a section of a more extensive cohort-sequential project on youth lifestyle choices. 92.4 % of the participants had birth place Canada. The other ethnic background other than Canadian were French, Italian, German and British. Moreover, 70 % of the participants lived with both parents, 15% with one birth parent, 12% with one biological parent and one step-parent, and the remaining with other guardians. Participants who completed the test at a minimum of 2 points of time out of four times were included. This made up 1472 participants out of the total sample of 1771 youths. 50.8% of the participants were female. Maintaining ethics is an important part of the research (Miller et al., 2012). There are many causes why it is required to obey to ethical rules in conducting research. Ethics endore some values crucial for collaborative work, like trust, accountability and fairness. It also promotes the purpose of the research (Millum Sina, 2014). Many of the rules in ethics ensure that research can be held responsible to the public. The present study followed ethical viewpoint by getting an approval of the research procedure from the University Research Ethics Board. Informed consent from the participants is the most crucial part of following ethics. Active, informed consent was taken from the participants. The parents of the participants were also involved in the process of getting informed assent. Participants were informed that the responses would be confidential. The frequency of involvement in sports was measured with the help of two items based on a 5-point scale. The Enjoyment of Sports was also measured by a 5-point scale. The measurement of self-esteem was done with Rosenbergs Self-Esteem Scale. For assessing longitudinally the selection and socializing hypotheses between self-esteem and the frequency of involvement in sports a 4-wave autoregressive cross-lagged model in AMOS 19 was created. For further eliciting the relationship between self-esteem and sports, a test of bidirectional association between enjoyment of sports and self-esteem was added. For simultaneously assessing the selection and socializing hypothesis between enjoyment of sports and self-esteem while having control over the frequency of involvement in sports, a three wave autoregressive cross-lagged model was created in AMOS 19. Gender also included as a moderator in all the analysis. Higher degree of self-esteem were found to be having relation with greater involvement with sports. However, greater involvement in sports was not found to be having relation with higher levels of self-esteem. This supported only selection effects. When the bidirectional effects between self-esteem and enjoyment of sports were tested, it was found that both socialization and selection held true. On a specific manner, more enjoyment of sports indicated more self-esteem. Higher self-esteem gave the indication of greater enjoyment of sports. Such findings highlighted the fact that adolescents who had higher self-esteem take up sports in a more frequent manner and they also enjoy sports to a greater extent than those who have lower self-esteem. Moreover, the extent to which they enjoy sports are more significant in increasing the levels of self-esteem than the frequency of playing sports. No important differences in the pattern of findings as a function of gender was present. The study had some important limitations. These cropped up from the dependence on self-report measures. The measures of adolescents enjoyment of sports and involvement in sports were limited in several ways. Construct validity is the suitability of inferences made based on observations or measurements (Sheahan et al., 2015). For the present research, it had justified construct validity as the inferences and results could satisfy the research objectives. Internal validity is the estimated truth about inferences in relation to cause-effect relationships (Woodman, 2014). The present research had fulfilled internal validity as it was successful in establishing the cause and effect relation between frequency of taking up sports, higher enjoyment of sports and self-esteem in a clear manner. External validity is the extent to which the results of a study has the potential to be generalized to other people and situations (Mitchell, 2012). For the present research, it had external validity as the results can be generalized to the general population as there was no gender bias and discrimination of ethnicity and research setting. Future research may be carried out on the same concerned topic with some distinct changes. Future studies can benefit from undertaking assessment of the involvement of youth in sports by taking into consideration of how often they play and the period for which they play. In spite of the fact that the measure of adolescents enjoyment of sports possessed a good face validity, more advantage can be gained by using a multi-item measure, like the 8-item scale used by Shaffer and Wittes (Rizer et al. 2016) for future research. This would give the feature of assessing the internal reliability of the measure. Overall, the research study was a significant one that was successful in drawing clear answers to the research questions. The findings signify vital developments in the general conceptualizing of the relation between self-esteem and sports, making the research a reliable one. References Elo, S., Kriinen, M., Kanste, O., Plkki, T., Utriainen, K., Kyngs, H. (2014). Qualitative Content Analysis.SAGE open,4(1), 2158244014522633. Finez, L., Berjot, S., Rosnet, E., Cleveland, C., Tice, D. M. (2012). Trait self-esteem and claimed self-handicapping motives in sports situations.Journal of sports sciences,30(16), 1757-1765. Jha, D. K., Kant, T., Singh, R. K. (2013). A critical review of recent research on functionally graded plates.Composite Structures,96, 833-849. Joseph, R. P., Royse, K. E., Benitez, T. J., Pekmezi, D. W. (2014). Physical activity and quality of life among university students: exploring self-efficacy, self-esteem, and affect as potential mediators.Quality of life research,23(2), 659-667. Kowalski, R. M., Giumetti, G. W., Schroeder, A. N., Lattanner, M. R. (2014). Bullying in the digital age: A critical review and meta-analysis of cyberbullying research among youth.Psychological bulletin,140(4), 1073. Le Cam, S., Perrier, C., Besnard, A. L., Bernatchez, L., Evanno, G. (2015). Genetic and phenotypic changes in an Atlantic salmon population supplemented with non-local individuals: a longitudinal study over 21 years.Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences,282(1802), 20142765. Magnusson, D. (2015).Individual Development from an Interactional Perspective (Psychology Revivals): A Longitudinal Study. Psychology Press. Marques, A., Ekelund, U., Sardinha, L. B. (2016). Associations between organized sports participation and objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time and weight status in youth.Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport,19(2), 154-157. Miller, T., Birch, M., Mauthner, M., Jessop, J. (Eds.). (2012).Ethics in qualitative research. Sage. Millum, J., Sina, B. (2014). Introduction: international research ethics education.Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics,9(2), 1-2. Mitchell, G. (2012). Revisiting truth or triviality the external validity of research in the psychological laboratory.Perspectives on Psychological Science,7(2), 109-117. Noordstar, J. J., van der Net, J., Jak, S., Helders, P. J., Jongmans, M. J. (2016). Global self-esteem, perceived athletic competence, and physical activity in children: A longitudinal cohort study.Psychology of Sport and Exercise,22, 83-90. Polgar, S., Thomas, S. A. (2013).Introduction to research in the health sciences. Elsevier Health Sciences. Rizer, C. A., Fagan, M. H., Kilmon, C., Rath, L. (2016). The Role of Perceived Stress and Health Beliefs on College Students' Intentions to Practice Mindfulness Meditation.American Journal of Health Education,47(1), 24-31. Sheahan, P. J., Nelson-Wong, E. J., Fischer, S. L. (2015). A review of culturally adapted versions of the Oswestry Disability Index: the adaptation process, construct validity, testretest reliability and internal consistency.Disability and rehabilitation,37(25), 2367-2374. Woodman, R. W. (2014). The role of internal validity in evaluation research on organizational change interventions.The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science,50(1), 40-49
Monday, December 2, 2019
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